This study was focused on evaluating maize yield and soil fertility improvement under the canopy of retained farmland tree species, particularly Terminalia brownie and Vitex doniana in parkland Agroforestry. The study area was suitable for maize cropping and mature tree species exist in the area. The result showed that Maize yield decreased the understory of studied tee species compared with open field due to the shading effect on crop performance. On the other hand, soil fertility parameters near tree trunk/under canopy cover showed improvement in terms of soil pH level, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon obtained except available potassium. Terminalia brownie and Vitex doniana farmland trees supply quantified amounts of important nutrients through the addition of organic biomass and modifying microclimate for ease of decomposition, so resource poor farmers had shortage to replenishing the soils with mineral fertilizer application. The present study concluded that multipurpose agroforestry trees have the potential to improved soil fertility in farming system and these could be promoted in smallholder farms by using appropriate above ground management options.
The study which spanned 35 days was carried out to investigate the impact of using probiotics on broiler birds' blood protein profile using the gel protein band development comparison. CRD was used for the experiment. A total of 36 Cobb Vantress birds were raised and fed with probiotics brand (poultry growth enhancer) containing culture solution of Lactobacillus spp. i.e milk bacteria, Bacillus spp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bird physical parameter such as body weight and feed supplied were weighed and birds were fed with restricted feeding style. The bird fed with probiotics included diet had a significantly higher average daily weight gain than those not fed with probiotics (p<0.05) at 40.16 for the treated and 39.09 for the control while the final weight gain on the restricted diet with treatment was not significantly different at 1.13 while those without the treatment was 1.167 and the initial body weight of the control birds was higher than those fed with probiotics in the diet. The electrophoretic protein profile of control and probiotics-fed birds based on a preliminary investigation of 10 randomly selected birds fed with and without probiotics. It was discovered that thicker bands were observed at point for globulins, transferrins, and albumins showing increased level as globulins contain antibiotics for defense, transferrins for oxygen transport, and albumins for greater blood oncotic pressure; this suggests that probiotics had a major impact on the birds' health
Wheat is an important winter cereal of Nepal but drought limits its production as 34.44% of wheat producing area is under non-irrigated environment. The identification of high yielding potential varieties with stable performance under drought environment may be the way forward to cope with limited productivity. So, in this study, the effect of genotype by environment interaction on yield of fourteen wheat varieties and two promising lines under two environmental conditions, irrigated and moisture-restricted environments were inspected. The research was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replication in each environment. The result showed significant difference between grain yield in irrigated and moisture restricted environments. In irrigated environment, highest yield was obtained in BL 4341 and lowest yield was obtained in Gautam while in moisture restricted environment, highest yield was obtained in NL 1327 and lowest yield was obtained in Nepal 297. In moisture-restricted environment, grain yield was reduced by 43.28% in comparison with irrigated environment. The AMMI analysis revealed that genotype, environment, genotype-environment interaction was highly significant for grain yield, and these explained 15.78%, 71.55%, 12.66% of the effect on yield, respectively. The which-won-where polygon view of GGE biplot revealed that BL 4341 and NL 1327 as vertex varieties and winning in irrigated and non-irrigated environment respectively. Furthermore, the mean-versus-stability pattern identified Bhrikuti as high yielding and stable variety while NL 1368 and Banganga were stable but produced below average yield. Similarly, from the ranking genotype pattern, we identified varieties Bhrikuti, BL 4341 and NL 971 to be close to the ideal variety respectively.
In Bangladesh during 2017-2018 was conducted in a farmer's field of the Chattogram hill districts to determine the effectiveness of different weed control strategies for weed control of transplanted chilli. The dry weight of weeds, weed control efficiency, weed index, and yield components like the number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit weight, and marketable fruit yield, had been significantly affected by using weed control measures. In the act of weed treatment in chilli fields, hand weeding+mulching also gave the highest weed control efficiency at harvest (89.19% in Khagrachari, 89.82% in Rangamati and 90.02% in Bandarban, respectively), the number of fruits per plant (130.40 in Khagrachari, 126.70 in Rangamati and 135.40 in Bandarban, respectively), fruit length (7.20 cm in Khagrachari, 7.00 cm in Rangamati and 7.10 cm in Bandarban, respectively), fruit weight (2.00g in Khagrachari, 2.10g in Rangamati and 2.20g in Bandarban, respectively) and marketable fruit yield (11.58 t/ha in Khagrachari, 11.64 t/ha in Rangamati and 11.96 t/ha in Bandarban, respectively) are the highest, while the weed index (3.90% in Khagrachari, 4.04% in Rangamati and 2.68% in Bandarban, respectively), is the lowest for hand weeding and mulching treatment compared with other treatments. Along these lines, chilli production in the hill districts of Chattogram was deemed to be the best eco-friendly and effective weed control strategy for hand weeding+mulching treatment.
In order to determine the degree of genetic divergence and to assess yield and yield components of rice under reproductive drought stress conditions, a field screening of eleven genotypes was carried out at a farmer's field in Sundarbazar, Lamjung. This was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant variations between all genotypes for all tested parameters were found by the analysis of variance, indicating the presence of genetic variability as well as the possibility of future improvement through selection. Phenotypic coefficient of variance was higher than genotypic coefficient of variance for all traits under study and difference between them was found low, meaning less influence of environment in the expression of these characters and selection could be effective on the basis of phenotype independent of genotype for the improvement of these traits. Moderate to high estimates of GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean was found for all traits studied. Chlorophyll content, leaf area and filled grains per panicle showed positive and significant association with grain yield. Three principal components were extracted based on eigen value accounting 84% of total variation. Eleven rice genotypes were clustered into three groups where cluster 3 was found to be superior for yield and yield attributing traits. Eight genotypes yielded more than that of check variety where highest yield was recorded by Sukhadhan-4. Rice genotypes under study showed enough genetic diversity hence, indirect selection of traits like flag leaf area, filled grains per panicle, harvest index, plant height, SPAD value and thousand grain weights will be effective for increasing yield.