The work evaluated the effects of egg colour and storage conditions on quality traits of chicken eggs. Methods: 336 eggs were randomly picked from a flock of white and brown hens and classified into 4 groups of storage length (0, 7, 14 and 21 days) and 2 temperature groups (ambient and refrigeration). Data was analysed with the two-way Analysis of Variance embedded in the General Linear Model procedure of Minitab (version 18). Differences in means were separated using the Tukey Pairwise Comparisons Method at 5% significance level. Significantly, the white eggs (58.5g) were heavier than the brown eggs (55.3g). Storage length did not affect egg weight, but eggs stored at room temperature were 1.4g lighter. Shell quality traits were approximately unchanged by egg colour and storage conditions. Egg colour x storage length and egg colour x storage temperature interactions significantly affected egg weight loss but the interactions did not affect the weight of the eggs and the shell quality traits. Egg colour did not affect the albumen height and Haugh unit significantly but the variables decreased as the storage length was increased. Albumen height under refrigeration was higher (8.0mm) than at room temperature (6.1mm). Egg colour and storage conditions significantly influenced yolk height and yolk weight. Albumen weight decreased as the storage was prolonged but was higher under refrigeration (27.3g) than room temperature (25.6g). Egg yolk was deeper in the brown (5.9) than white (3.4) eggs, deeper in the refrigerated eggs but varied irregularly with storage length. The interactions of egg colour and the storage conditions did not affect albumen height, Haugh unit, albumen weight, yolk weight and yolk colour significantly but yolk height was significantly influenced except for the egg colour x storage length interaction. The storage length x storage temperature interaction significantly affected Yolk pH. Eggs should be kept cold, but not more than 7 days because their quality can be affected under inadequate storage conditions.
Characterization of the nature and properties of soils is fundamental to effective land use planning, land allocation and land management. A study was conducted in a gully eroded site at Ugwuoba, in Enugu State-Southeast, Nigeria. The study area runs on a toposequence of about 195m in length and was divided into three units of upslope, midslope and downslope for ease of study. A soil profile was dug 15m away from the upslope to serve as the control. Prior to soil sample collection, the horizons were first delineated. Soil samples were then collected from the soil profile, starting from the bottom horizon. Before soil sample collection from the upslope, midslope and downslope sections of the gully, the gully walls were first cleaned by scraping off the exposed surface to expose the undisturbed underlying layer. The horizons were then delineated and soil samples collected, starting from the bottom horizon. Collected soil samples were analyzed for selected soil properties; data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis and treatment means were separated using Duncan’s post hoc test at 5% probability level. The results obtained showed a colour differentiation that ranged from dark brown, dark yellowish brown, yellow red to dark red with a crumby structure. The textural class of the studied area was predominantly sandy loam. Soil pH was generally acidic. The control, upslope, midslope and downslope had average available phosphorus concentration of 19.48 mg/kg, 18.92 mg/kg, 22.03 mg/kg and 22.08 mg/kg respectively. Average Total Nitrogen concentrations of 1.28%, 0.09%, 0.09%, and 0.11%, were obtained respectively at the control, upslope, midslope and downslope. Soil organic carbon ranged from 0.72%-1.42% at the upslope, 0.78%-1.63% at the midslope and 0.96%-1.17% at the downslope. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of the studied area ranged from 5.95 cmol/kg to 10.02 cmol/kg. Calcium concentration ranged from 3.00 cmol/kg to 4.40 cmol/kg at the control, 2.80 cmol/kg-4.40 cmol/kg at the upslope, 2.80 cmol/kg to 4.00 cmol/kg at the midslope, 3.60 cmol/kg to 5.20 cmol/kg at the downslope. Potassium concentration ranged from 0.08 cmol/kg to 0.14 cmol/kg. Magnesium concentration ranged from 1.20 cmol/kg to 3.20 cmol/kg, Sodium concentration ranged from 0.10 to 0.21. Exchangeable soil acidity of the studied area ranged from 0.80 cmol/kg to 1.60 cmol/kg. Soils of the studied area are classified as Typic Udipsamments and Arenosols according to USDA soil taxonomic system and World Reference Base respectively. The soils can support perennial crops when left under natural vegetation.
The experiment was conducted to measure the effect of age and sex on growth traits and their relationships in rabbits. 96 8-weeks-old (male and female) weaned composite rabbits were used in a completely randomized experiment. Data was analysed with the General Linear Model procedure of SAS (version 9.4). Differences between means were separated with the Tukey Comparison Method at 5% probability level. Body weight of the rabbits significantly increased as they grew from week 8 (577.51g) to 2090.51g in the 20th week. Sex had no significant effect on the rabbits’ body weight and post weaning average daily gain (PWADG) but the males were heavier than the females at all ages except the weaning age. There was medium to high positive correlation (r = 0.379 to r = 0.974) between body weights at all ages. The association between body weight and PWADG was negatively low in the younger animals, but the traits however had positive but low to medium correlation from week BW14 to BW20. Body weight of the does had low to high and positive correlations among the different ages. The younger does up to week 12 presented negative relationship between body weight and PWADG but from week 13 to week 20, the duo related positively. Body weight of the bucks had medium (0.455) to high (0.979) positive associations among the ages. Body weight and PWADG had negative correlation in the younger bucks up to week 13 except for week 12 (r = 0.051) but correlated positively in the older females from week 14. Growth rate is faster in younger rabbits than older ones and so younger rabbits must be managed adequately up to week 16 to boost their system for growth and to reach marketable sizes early. Bucks increase in weight faster than the does, and so must be housed separately to avoid bullying. For improved body weight, rabbits should be selected for breeding at a younger age.
This field experiment was conducted during the 2021 cropping season at the Prince Abubakar Audu University Research and Demonstration farm, Anyigba in the Southern Guinea Savana Agro Ecological Zone of Nigeria to determine the performance of maize varieties under the influence of NPK 20:10:10 and Urea fertilizer application. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replications. The treatment consisted of three NPK 20:10:10 levels (0, 60, 120), Urea (0, 60, 120) and two varieties [Samaz 52 (OPV) and Oba-super-6 (Hybrid)] respectively. Results obtained show that fertilizers application increased growth parameters such as; plant height, days to 1st and 50% flowering. However, Number of leaves/plant, number of spikes/plant and grain weight/cob was not significantly influenced by fertilizer application. There were varietal differences in number of spikes/tassel and threshing %. Oba-super-6 consistently produced taller plants, thicker stems, higher leaf area, more spike/tassels than OPV. Application of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer at 120kg/ha significantly influence yield and some yield components such as cob length (13.84cm), threshing % (78.61) and final grain yield (4196.30kg/ha), number of grains/cob (355.85), leaf area at 4 and 6WAS (307.21 and 447.28cm) respectively than at the application of 60kg/ha and 0kg/ha. However, application of 120kg N/ha significantly influenced 100-seed weight (29.36). Oba-super-6 out yielded OPV in yield and its components. For the interactions studied, for days to emergence, all factors studied had no significant effect (P ≥ 0.05); for plant height, NPK x V, NPK x N, N x V was significant (P ≤ 0.05), for days to 1st, NPK x N and NPK x N x V was significant (P ≤ 0.05), for days to 50% flowering, NPK x V, N x V and NPK x N x V was significant (P ≤ 0.05). for threshing percent, only NPK x N was significant (P ≤ 0.05); for No. of grains/cob, NPK x N and NPK x N x V was significant (P ≤ 0.05); for 100-seed weight, all factors studied had no significant effect (P ≥ 0.05); for final grain weight, NPK x N and NPK x N x V was significant.
The sufficient supply of N-fertilizer in maize crop is imperative for optimum performance. However, timing of application of this nutrient may create variation in yield performances of the crop. A field experiment was conducted during the 2021 raining season to investigate the effect of time of N-fertilizer application on growth and yield of three maize cultivars at Prince Abubakar Audu University Research and Demonstration farm, Anyigba. The experiments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) consisted of 9 treatment combination; 3 maize cultivars [(Oba-Super 6 (hybrid), Samaz-52 (OPV) and Local cultivar] and 3 stages of N- fertilizer (3WAS, at tasseling and at silking). Time of N-fertilizer application does not significantly influence (P ≥ 0.05) the number of leaves/plant, plant height at 4 and 6WAS, days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering cob length and number of cobs/plant. However, application of N-fertilizer at 3WAS significantly produced (P ≤ 0.05) higher biomass and application of N-fertilizer at silking stage significantly improved number of seeds produced per cob, 100-seed weight and final grain yield followed by application at tasseling stage. Similarly, Varieties had no significance on the leaf area except the yield and yield components. However, Samaz-52 (OPV) displayed earlier days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering respectively. Oba-super-6 (hybrid) produced significantly higher number of seeds/cob. Samaz-52 (OPV) produced significantly higher grain yield (3398.16 kg/ha) followed by the Local Cultivar (2537.05 kg/ha) and the Oba-Super 6 (hybrid) which recorded the least grain yield (1851.86 kg/ha). Finally, it appears that application of nitrogen at silking stage gave a yield as high as its’ application at 3 weeks after sowing. Therefore, application of N-fertilizer in two split doses (first at 3WAS and top dress at silking stage) is highly recommended for the planting of Samaz-52 (OPV) which appears to be promising in grain yield than Oba super-6 and the local variety.
Multi-environment trials are important to identify desirable genotypes. A field experiment was carried out at four locations for two years to evaluate thirteen malt-sorghum genotypes together with two checks so as to identify stable and high-yielding genotypes. The trial was laid out in a three-time replicated randomized complete block design. Data were collected on seven agronomic and yield-related traits. The results of the combined analyses of variance over years and across locations showed significant (p<0.01) differences among the sorghum genotypes for all the seven traits considered. Both the genotype × location (p<0.05) and genotype × location × year (p<0.01) interactions significantly affected grain yield. The genotype G4 (SDSL89473) gave the highest (4.663 t ha-1) grain yield as compared to the farmers’ variety (3.489 t ha-1). The average-environment coordination view of Genotype main effect plus Genotype-Environment interaction biplot ranked G4 (SDSL89473) as the most desirable (high-yielder and stable) genotype, followed by G7 and G13. Most of the stability statistics including cultivar superiority, mean ranks, mean absolute differences of pairs of ranks and variance of ranks were also identified SDSL89473 as the most stable malt-sorghum genotype. The genotype SDSL89473 could, therefore, be recommended for production in dry low-altitude areas of Northeast Ethiopia. It could also be used as a parent in future malt-sorghum improvement program as a possible parent for crossing.
A total of ten food barley varieties were evaluated to study their adaptability and yield performance and the combined analysis showed significant differences (p<0.001). Varieties HB-1966 and EH-1493 showed promising results and preferred among the tested varieties. The combined over locations’ grain yield of the varieties ranged from 1589 to 2689 Kg ha-1, while the range was from 1589 to 4713 Kg ha-1. This shows that how big the effect of the environment is on the yield of the varieties. The highest grain yield was recorded for HB-1966 followed by EH-1493, where the lowest yield was recorded for Harbu variety. The principal component analysis of the varieties studied showed that the first two PCAs accounted for 85.17% of the total variability in grain yield. Genotypes 2, 5 and 7 are located near the concentric circle and are likely to be stable among the varieties studied.