Maize as the main staple food, development of maize cultivars with enhanced levels of two essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan are a must. Most of the improved maize varieties released so far for commercial production are poor sources of quality protein since normal maize protein is deficient in two essential amino acids which are lysine and tryptophan. Developing quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids is therefore important to improve the human health. Determining the standard heterosis of QPM hybrids is an essential step to facilitate the development of QPM hybrids and their commercialization. This study was conducted to estimate standard heterosis of fifteen single-cross QPM hybrids. The crosses were made in a 6x6 half diallel mating design which produced fifteen F1 single crosses. These single crosses along with three standard checks were evaluated for their grain yield and other traits, using alpha lattice design with three replications. L3xL4 gave the highest standard heterosis for grain yield over the best check BH546 (13.08%) and mean of the three checks, BH546, BH547 and BHQ548 (35.26%). L3xL6 and L4xL6 had also higher magnitude of standard heterosis over the checks. Thus, these hybrids can potentially be proposed for commercialization, and the breeding values of their parents can be exploited for QPM breeding.
grain yield, half-diallel, normal maize, quality protein maize, standard heterosis
Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., Ali, F., Aslam, M., Khan, N.H., Munzoor, M., Mustafa, H.S.B., & Muhammad, S. (2013). Heritability, heterosis and heterobeltiosis studies for morphological traits of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Advancements in Life sciences, 1(4), 242 −253.
Asefa, B., Mohammed, H., & Zelleke, H. (2008). Combining ability of transitional highland maize inbred lines. East African Journal of Science, 2, 19-24.
Bitew, T. E. (2016). Heterosis and combining ability of mid altitude maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for grain yield, yield related traits and reaction to turciccum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum Leonard and Suggs) at Bako, Western Ethiopia. Masters, Haramaya.
CSA. (2018). Agricultural Sample survey: Report on area and production of major crops (private peasant holdings, Meher season). Statistical Bulletin, (1).Addis Abeba.
Dereje, B., Mosisa, W., Hadji, T., Wonde, A., S.TwumasiAfriyie, Mandefro, N., Leta T., Legesse, W., & Abdissa, G., (2001). On-Farm Evaluation of CIMMYT’S Quality Protein Maize Varieties in Ethiopia. Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, 77-79.
Duvick, D.N. (1999). Heterosis: feeding people and protecting natural resources. In: coors J G, Pandey S, eds. The Genetics andd Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops. NewYork: Crop Sci Society of America, 19-30.
EARO/CIMMYT. (2002). Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO), Research strategy plan for maize. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Falconer, D.S., Mackay, T.F., & Frankham, R. (1996). Introduction to quantitative genetics (4th edn). Trends in Genetics, 12, 280.
FAO (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations). (2016). Crop Prospects and Food Situation.
Gebre, A. B. (2017) Combining ability of highland maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines using line x tester analysis. MSc thesis, Hawassa.
Gudeta, N., Dagne, W., & Habtamu, Z. (2015). Heterosis and combining ability of highland quality protein maize inbred lines. Maydica 60. https://journals-crea.4science.it/index.php/maydica/article/view/1273/961
Matin, M.Q.I., Rasul, M.G., Islam, A.A., Mian, M.K., Ivy, N.A. & Ahmed, J.U. (2016). Combining Ability and Heterosis in Maize (Zea mays L.). American Journal of BioScience, 4, 84-90.
Melkamu, E., Taddese, D., & Yigzaw, D. (2013). Combining ability, Gene Action and Heterosis Estimation in Quality Protein Maize. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications.
Patterson, H.D., & E.R., Williams. (1976). A new class of resolvable incomplete block designs. Biometrika, 63, 83-89.
Shull, G.H. (1908). The composition of a field of maize. J. Hered. 4, 296–301.
Shushay, W. (2011). Line x tester analysis of maize (Zea maysL.) inbred lines for grain yield and yield related traits in central rift valley of Ethiopia, Masters, Haramaya.
Singh, P., Singh, A., Shahi, J., & Ranjan, R. (2012). Combining ability and heterosis in quality protein maize. The Bioscan, 7, 337-340.
Talukder, M., Karim, A.S., Ahmed, S., & Amiruzzaman, M. (2016). Combining ability and heterosis on yield and its component traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 41, 565-577.
Vasal, S.K. (2001) High quality protein corn, In: Specialty Corns. 2nd edn. Hallauer AR ed. CRC Press, Washington, DC, 85-129.
Virmani, S.S., & I.B., Edwards. (1983). Current status and future prospects for breeding hybrid rice and wheat. Adv. Agron, 36, 145-157.